The Best Brain, Inflammation, Pain, Energy, and Detox Diet Ever

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Paleo diet in a Lyme disease treatment image from Marty Ross MD

The Best Brain, Inflammation, Pain, Energy, and Detox Diet Ever.

Try this diet. I think it is the best option for someone with chronic Lyme disease. It is designed to:

  • improve brain function and grow nerve connections,
  • prevent Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease which Lyme can trigger,
  • decrease inflammation and inflammation cytokines from infection,
  • prevent and treats yeast overgrowth in the intestines that could cause more inflammation,
  • provide key vitamins, antioxidants, and dietary fiber for detoxification,
  • and repair and grow cell energy factories called mitochondria found in every cell.

The diet is named the Mito Food Plan. It was developed by physicians and nutritionist from The Institute for Functional Medicine and is based on the latest science. This article includes numerous papers and articles that are printed here for you to download with permission of the authors.

Marty Ross MD Discusses Healthy Food in Lyme Disease

This video was recorded in Feburary 2016 while Dr. Ross practiced in Seattle Washington.

 
 
 
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The Mito Food Plan

  • provides 60% of calories from healthy fats, 20% from protein, and 20% from complex carbohydrate sugars.
  • is similar to a Paleo diet as it avoids grains, but compared to the Paleo diet it relies more heavily on healthy fats and anti-inflammatory therapeutic foods,
  • is a gluten-free diet,
  • requires a rainbow of vegetable colors in a day to provide key vitamins and antioxidants,
  • includes three different periodic fasting options to increase the production of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) that promotes nerve growth and connections to improve brain function.

How To Use This Article

This article has a number of resources attached to it and steps to take. I am breaking it down in to a number of steps to make it easier to understand.

Step One

Calculate a target for your daily calorie intake.

  • Print or view the Target Calorie Recommendations page which I use in the video below.
  • Watch the video where I show you how to calculate your target calorie intake.

(Note: In the calculation 1 KG = 2.2 pounds. If a person weighs 150 pounds then they weigh 68.1 KG (150/2.2). Also 1 inch equals 2.54 cm. So a 5 ft 6 inch tall person is 66 inches tall. This person is 167.64 cm tall ( 66 X 2.54).)


Marty Ross MD Explains How To Calculate Your Recommended Calories

 
 
 
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Step Two

Create your food plan which provides a goal for the servings you should eat each day of protein, nuts and seeds, fruit, vegetables, legumes, and healthy fats.

  • Determine the different amount of servings for each food categories using the Options for Therapeutic Macronutrients Distributions table (print or view) and your target daily calories you determined in Step One.
  • Write the servings on the your Mito Food Plan (print or view).
  • Watch the video to see how I developed my own food plan.

Marty Ross MD Explains How to Create Your Mito Food Plan

 
 
 
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Step Three

Make sure you get enough essential vitamins and micronutrients in a day by having a rainbow of color each day from your vegetables and limited fruit intake. Make sure you try to eat foods of at least one of these colors identified in the Phytonutrients Spectrum Foods document (print or view).

Step Four

Develop your first menu and go shopping (or have someone help you do this). Sometimes figuring out how to get started is the hardest part. Try the Mito Food Plan Weekly Planner and Recipes (print).

Step Five

Knowledge is power. Understand why it is good eat this way. Read Mito Food Plan Comprehensive Guide (print). This document explains the food plan in some detail. It provides a good explanation of why you should have so many health fats in a day and why some recommendations are called therapeutic foods.

Step Six

Adjust.

As I have worked with this food plan for my own diet I have had to adjust. The initial calorie target that I calculated was too much, and I was gaining weight. So I had to cut back on all of the food categories equally.

I tried to eat “the best’ protein choices like grass feed bison, beef, and wild salmon. But this is very expensive. So you may need to emphasize the other protein choices.


My Favorite Food

By far my favorite therapeutic food is coconut oil. I now start out each day by putting 1 tablespoon in my morning coffee or tea. Coconut oil is direct brain fuel. It is rich in medium chain triglycerides and the brain superfuel known as beta-hydroxybutyrate. It is shown to improve brain function and improve mitochondrial energy function too.

A Note on Fasting

Periodic fasting is shown to improve brain function, decrease inflammation and improve the function of the mitochondria energy factories. It can help prevent Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. There are three types of fasting you can try. These options are outlined in the Mito Food Plan Comprehensive Guide on pages 7, and 29-30. Consider discussing fasting with your physician before trying the 24 hour option.

The options include

  • 24 hour water only fast 1-2 times a month
  • 600 calorie daily fast 1 time a week, or
  • 12 hour fast 4 times a week with no food from dinner until breakfast.

A Detox Diet

The Mito Food Plan is a detox diet. It is full of antioxidants that work to increase the master detox chemical used by the liver called glutathione. For more information about this key chemical read Glutathione: The Great Fixer. In addition to the food choices outlined in the diet be sure to drink 1/2 of your body weight (in pounds) as ounces of water a day. For example a 150 pound person should drink 75 ounces of water a day. Read more about detoxification in Lyme Detoxification 101: The Basics.

An Anti-Yeast Diet

The Mito Food Plan is great for treating and preventing yeast overgrowth in the intestines. It is a low carbohydrate (sugar) diet. In this way it starves yeast of its food source sugar. Read more about preventing and treating yeast in the Yeast Chapter.

Go Organic

As much as possible buy organic foods. Do not add more poisons and toxins to your body. In Lyme disease, the various germs release toxins. In addition some of the medications are toxins too. So limit your exposure to other toxins when you eat organic foods.

Does The Food Plan Work?

Yes, but it but in most cases it takes time.

In my own case though I saw some dramatic improvements after working with this diet for 1.5 months. I was having daily severe headaches, very low energy, and poor sleep over a course of 3 months. I tried various approaches, but only after using this diet plan did I really turn the corner. Now I am back functioning fully.

Disclaimer

The ideas and recommendations on this website and in this article are for informational purposes only. For more information about this, see the sitewide Terms & Conditions.

References

View Citations

This reference list for the Mito Food Plan is reprinted with permission from the Institute for Functional Medicine

Therapeutic Foods for Energy

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Protective Antioxidants

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Anti-Inflammatory Nutrients

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High-Quality Dietary Fats

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Low Glycemic Impact

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Reduced Carbohydrates with Ketogenic Option

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Intermittent Fasting and Caloric Restriction

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Low-Grain and Gluten-Free

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  2. Daulatzai MA. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity triggers gut dysbiosis, neuroinflammation, gut-brain axis dysfunction, and vulnerability for dementia. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14(1):110-31.
  3. de Punder K, Pruimboom L. The dietary intake of wheat and other cereal grains and their role in inflammation. Nutrients. 2013 Mar 12;5(3):771-87. doi: 10.3390/nu5030771.
  4. Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DS, Grünewald RA, Woodroofe N, et al. Gluten sensitivity: from gut to brain. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Mar;9(3):318-30. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70290-X.
  5. Lichtwark IT, Newnham ED, Robinson SR, Shepherd SJ, et al. Cognitive impairment in coeliac disease improves on a gluten-free diet and correlates with histological and serological indices of disease severity. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Jul;40(2):160-70. doi: 10.1111/apt.12809.
  6. Mansueto P, Seidita A, D’Alcamo A, Carroccio A. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: literature review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(1):39-54. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.869996. © 2018 The Institute for Functional Medicine Scientific/Medical Publications Low-Grain and Gluten-Free (cont.)
  7. Margoni D, Michalakakou K, Angeli E, Pervanidou P, et al. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children with coeliac disease. Eur J Clin Invest. 2018 May;48(5):e12916. doi: 10.1111/eci.12916.
  8. Mitoma H, Adhikari K, Aeschlimann D, Chattopadhyay P, et al. Consensus paper: neuroimmune mechanisms of cerebellar ataxias. Cerebellum. 2016 Apr;15(2):213-32. doi: 10.1007/s12311-015-0664-x.
  9. Nemani K, Hosseini Ghomi R, McCormick B, Fan X. Schizophrenia and the gut-brain axis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Jan 2;56:155-60. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.08.018.
  10. Nijeboer P, Bontkes HJ, Mulder CJ, Bouma G. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. is it in the gluten or the grain? J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2013 Dec;22(4):435-40.
  11. Pennisi M, Bramanti A, Cantone M, Pennisi G, et al. Neurophysiology of the “celiac brain”: disentangling gut-brain connections. Front Neurosci. 2017 Sep 5;11:498. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00498.
  12. Pinto-Sanchez MI, Bercik P, Verdu EF. Motility alterations in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Dig Dis. 2015;33(2):200-7. doi: 10.1159/000371400.
  13. Reichelt KL, Jensen D. IgA antibodies against gliadin and gluten in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004 Oct;110(4):239-41.
  14. Sapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, Dolinsek J, et al. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Med. 2012 Feb 7;10:13. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-13.
  15. Stomby A, Otten J, Ryberg M, Nyberg L, et al. A Paleolithic diet with and without combined aerobic and resistance exercise increases functional brain responses and hippocampal volume in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017 Dec 4;9:391. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00391.

Miscellaneous References

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

  1. Behl T, Kotwani A. Downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. Can J Diabetes. 2017 Apr;41(2):241-246. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2016.08.228.
  2. Beilharz JE, Maniam J, Morris MJ. Diet-induced cognitive deficits: the role of fat and sugar, potential mechanisms and nutritional interventions. Nutrients. 2015 Aug 12;7(8):6719-38. doi: 10.3390/nu7085307.
  3. Briana DD, Malamitsi-Puchner A. Developmental origins of adult health and disease: the metabolic role of BDNF from early life to adulthood. Metabolism. 2018 Apr;81:45-51. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.11.019.
  4. Cho J, Shin MK, Kim D, Lee I, et al. Treadmill running reverses cognitive declines due to alzheimer’s disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Sep;47(9):1814-24. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000612.
  5. Fanaei H, Khayat S, Kasaeian A, Javadimehr M. Effect of curcumin on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in women with premenstrual syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neuropeptides. 2016 Apr;56:25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2015.11.003.
  6. Franco-Robles E, Campos-Cervantes A, Murillo-Ortiz BO, Segovia J, et al. Effects of curcumin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and oxidative damage in obesity and diabetes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Feb;39(2): 211-8. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2013-0133.
  7. Leckie RL, Weinstein AM, Hodzic JC, Erickson KI. Potential moderators of physical activity on brain health. J Aging Res. 2012;2012:948981. doi: 10.1155/2012/948981.
  8. Navaratna D, Guo SZ, Hayakawa K, Wang X, et al. Decreased cerebrovascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated neuroprotection in the diabetic brain. Diabetes. 2011 Jun;60(6):1789-96. doi: 10.2337/db10-1371.
  9. Marie C, Pedard M, Quirié A, Tessier A, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor secreted by the cerebral endothelium: a new actor of brain function? J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018 Jan 1:271678X18766772. doi: 10.1177/0271678X18766772.
  10. Radd-Vagenas S, Duffy SL, Naismith SL, Brew BJ, et al. Effect of the mediterranean diet on cognition and brain morphology and function: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Mar 1;107(3):389- 404. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqx070.
  11. Sangiovanni E, Brivio P, Dell’Agli M, Calabrese F. et al. Botanicals as modulators of neuroplasticity: focus on BDNF. Neural Plast. 2017;2017:5965371. doi: 10.1155/2017/5965371.
  12. Tsai SW, Chan YC, Liang F, Hsu CY, Lee IT. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlated with muscle strength in subjects undergoing stationary bicycle exercise training. J Diabetes Complications. 2015 Apr;29(3):367-71. doi: 10.1016/j. Jdiacomp.2015.01.014.

Diet

  1. Abbatecola AM, Russo M, Barbieri M. Dietary patterns and cognition in older persons. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Jan;21(1):10-13. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000434.
  2. Berendsen AM, Kang JH, Feskens EJM, de Groot CPGM, et al. Association of long-term adherence to the MIND diet with cognitive function and cognitive decline in american women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;22(2):222-229. doi: 10.1007/s12603-017-0909-0
  3. Berti V, Murray J, Davies M, Spector N, et al. Nutrient patterns and brain biomarkers of alzheimer’s disease in cognitively normal individuals. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015 Apr;19(4):413-23. doi: 10.1007/s12603-014-0534-0.
  4. Beilharz JE, Maniam J, Morris MJ. Diet-induced cognitive deficits: the role of fat and sugar, potential mechanisms and nutritional interventions. Nutrients. 2015 Aug 12;7(8):6719-38. doi: 10.3390/nu7085307.
  5. Cavallo DN, Horino M, McCarthy WJ. Adult intake of minimally processed fruits and vegetables: associations with cardiometabolic disease risk factors. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Sep;116(9):1387-1394. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.03.019.
  6. Del Brutto OH, Mera RM, Gillman J, Zambrano M, Ha JE. Oily Fish intake and cognitive performance in communitydwelling older adults: the atahualpa project. J Community Health. 2016 Feb;41(1):82-6. doi: 10.1007/s10900-015-0070-9.
  7. Galland L. The gut microbiome and the brain. J Med Food. 2014 Dec;17(12):1261-72. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.7000.
  8. Gower BA, Goss AM. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. 2015 Jan;145(1):177S-83S. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.195065.
  9. Hughes KC, Gao X, Kim IY, Wang M, et al. Intake of dairy foods and risk of parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2017 Jul 4;89(1):46-52. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004057.
  10. Jackson PA, Pialoux V, Corbett D, Drogos L, et al. Promoting brain health through exercise and diet in older adults: a physiological perspective. J Physiol. 2016 Aug 15;594(16):4485-98. doi: 10.1113/JP271270. n Kalli EG. Association of nutrients with biomarkers of alzheimer’s disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;987:257-268. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57379-3_23.
  11. Kannappan R, Gupta SC, Kim JH, Reuter S, Aggarwal BB. Neuroprotection by spice-derived nutraceuticals: you are what you eat. Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Oct;44(2):142-59. doi: 10.1007/s12035-011-8168-2.
  12. Kondo K, Morino K, Nishio Y, Kondo M, et al. A fish-based diet intervention improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover trial. Metabolism. 2014 Jul;63(7):930-40. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.04.005.
  13. Masana MF, Koyanagi A, Haro JM, Tyrovolas S. n-3 Fatty acids, mediterranean diet and cognitive function in normal aging: a systematic review. Exp Gerontol. 2017 May;91:39-50. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2017.02.008.
  14. Mischley LK, Lau RC, Bennett RD. Role of diet and nutritional supplements in parkinson’s disease progression. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:6405278. doi: 10.1155/2017/6405278. n  Morris MC. Nutrition and risk of dementia: overview and methodological issues. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Mar;1367(1):31-7. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13047.
  15. Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang Y, Sacks FM, et al. MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Sep;11(9):1007-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.009.
  16. Phillips C. Lifestyle modulators of neuroplasticity: how physical activity, mental engagement, and diet promote cognitive health during aging. Neural Plast. 2017;2017:3589271. doi: 10.1155/2017/3589271.
  17. Pistollato F, Iglesias RC, Ruiz R, Aparicio S, et al. Nutritional patterns associated with the maintenance of neurocognitive functions and the risk of dementia and alzheimer’s disease: A focus on human studies.Pharmacol Res. 2018 May;131:32- 43. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.03.012.
  18. Solfrizzi V, Custodero C, Lozupone M, Imbimbo BP, et al. Relationships of dietary patterns, foods, and micro- and macronutrients with alzheimer’s disease and late-life cognitive disorders: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;59(3):815-849. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170248.
  19. Soultoukis GA, Partridge L. Dietary protein, metabolism, and aging. Annu Rev Biochem. 2016 Jun 2;85:5-34. doi: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014422.
  20. Tucker KL. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Mar;1367(1):38-49. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13062.
  21. Valls-Pedret C, Sala-Vila A, Serra-Mir M, Corella D, et al. mediterranean diet and age-related cognitive decline: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jul;175(7):1094-103. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.1668.
  22. Willcox DC, Scapagnini G, Willcox BJ. Healthy aging diets other than the mediterranean: a focus on the okinawan diet. Mech Ageing Dev. 2014 Mar-Apr;136-137:148-62. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2014.01.002.
  23. Yannakoulia M, Kontogianni M, Scarmeas N. Cognitive health and mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern? Ageing Res Rev. 2015 Mar;20C:74-78. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2014.10.003.

Longevity/Neurodegeneration

  1. Aon MA, Cortassa S, Juhaszova M, Sollott SJ. Mitochondrial health, the epigenome and healthspan. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016 Aug 1;130(15):1285-305. doi: 10.1042/CS20160002. n          Blagosklonny MV. Once again on rapamycin‐induced insulin resistance and longevity: despite of or owing to. Aging. May 2012; 4(5):350-358.
  2. Calabrese V, Cornelius C, Mancuso C, Pennisi G, et al. Cellular stress response: a novel target for chemoprevention and nutritional neuroprotection in aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity. Neurochem Res. 2008 Dec;33(12):2444- 71. doi: 10.1007/s11064-008-9775-9. n  Calsolaro V, Edison P. Alterations in glucose metabolism in alzheimer’s disease. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2016;10(1):31-39.
  3. Camandola S, Mattson MP. Brain metabolism in health, aging, and neurodegeneration. EMBO J. 2017 Jun 1;36(11):1474- 1492. doi: 10.15252/embj.201695810.
  4. Cornelius C, Perrotta R, Graziano A, Calabrese EJ, Calabrese V. Stress responses, vitagenes and hormesis as critical determinants in aging and longevity: mitochondria as a “chi”. Immun Ageing. 2013 Apr 25;10(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1742- 4933-10-15.
  5. Daulatzai MA. Chronic functional bowel syndrome enhances gut-brain axis dysfunction, neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability to dementia. Neurochem Res. 2014 Apr;39(4):624-44. doi: 10.1007/s11064-014-1266-6.
  6. Daulatzai MA. Role of stress, depression, and aging in cognitive decline and alzheimer’s disease. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2014;18:265-96. doi: 10.1007/7854_2014_350. n Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S. New therapeutic strategy for parkinson’s and alzheimer’s disease. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(25):2764-74.
  7. Joseph J, Cole G, Head E, Ingram D. Nutrition, brain aging, and neurodegeneration. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 14;29(41):12795-801. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3520-09.2009.
  8. Mazzetti AP, Fiorile MC, Primavera A, Lo Bello M. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochem Int. 2015 Feb 7;82C:10-18. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2015.01.008.
  9. Raefsky SM, Mattson MP. Adaptive responses of neuronal mitochondria to bioenergetic challenges: Roles in neuroplasticity and disease resistance. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Jan;102:203-216. doi: 10.1016/j. freeradbiomed.2016.11.045.
  10. Ramesh BN, Rao TS, Prakasam A, Sambamurti K, Rao KS. Neuronutrition and alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19(4):1123-39. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-1312.
  11. Solfrizzi V, Panza F, Frisardi V, Seripa D, et al. Diet and Alzheimer’s disease risk factors or prevention: the current evidence. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 May;11(5):677-708. doi: 10.1586/ern.11.56.
  12. Virmani A, Pinto L, Binienda Z, Ali S. Food, nutrigenomics, and neurodegeneration--neuroprotection by what you eat. Mol Neurobiol. 2013 Oct;48(2):353-62. doi: 10.1007/s12035-013-8498-3.

Organic Foods

  1. Barański M, Srednicka-Tober D, Volakakis N, Seal C, et al. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep 14;112(5):794-811. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001366.
  2. Baudry J, Lelong H, Adriouch S, Julia C, et al. Association between organic food consumption and metabolic syndrome: cross-sectional results from the nutrinet-santé study. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Aug 2. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1520-1.
  3. Benbrook CM, Butler G, Latif MA, Leifert C, Davis DR. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 9;8(12):e82429. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082429.
  4. Crinnion WJ. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):4-12.
  5. Ferreiro T, Gayoso L, Rodríguez-Otero JL. Milk phospholipids: organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk. J Dairy Sci. 2015 Jan;98(1):9-14. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8244.
  6. Kamihiro S, Stergiadis S, Leifert C, Eyre MD, Butler G. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production. Meat Sci. 2015 Feb;100:306-18.
  7. Kim S, Woo GJ. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated fromconventional and organic vegetables. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Oct;11(10):815-21. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1771.
  8. Lundebye A-K, Lock E-J, Rasinger JD, et al. Lower levels of persistent organic pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (salmo salar). Environmental Research. 2017;155:49-59. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.01.026.
  9. Mazzoncini M, Antichi D, Silvestri N, Ciantelli G, Sgherri C. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour. Food Chem. 2015 May 15;175:445-51. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.138.
  10. Mugnai C, Sossidou EN, Dal Bosco A, Ruggeri S, et al. The effects of husbandry system on the grass intake and egg nutritive characteristics of laying hens. J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Feb;94(3):459-67. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6269.
  11. Oates L, Cohen M, Braun L, Schembri A, Taskova R. Reduction in urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites in adults after a week-long organic diet. Environ Res. 2014 Jul;132:105-11. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.021.
  12. Rodríguez-Hernández C, Camacho M, Henríquez-Hernández LA, et al. Comparative study of the intake of toxic persistent and semi persistent pollutants through the consumption of fish and seafood from two modes of production (wild-caught and farmed). Science of The Total Environment. 2017;575:919-931. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.142.
  13. Rosati A, Cafiero C, Paoletti A, Alfei B, et al. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.) Food Chem. 2014 Sep 15;159:236-43. doi: 10.1016/j. foodchem.2014.03.014.
  14. Średnicka-Tober D, Barański M, Seal C, Sanderson R, et al. Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 28;115(6):994-1011. doi: 10.1017/ S0007114515005073.
  15. Vinha AF, Barreira SV, Costa AS, Alves RC, Oliveira MB. Organic versus conventional tomatoes: influence on physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and sensorial attributes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 May;67:139-44. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.02.018.

Phytonutrients

  1. Aires DJ, Rockwell G, Wang T, Frontera J, et al. Potentiation of dietary restriction-induced lifespan extension by polyphenols. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Apr;1822(4):522-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.01.005.
  2. Bastianetto S, Krantic S, Chabot JG, Quirion R. Possible involvement of programmed cell death pathways in the neuroprotective action of polyphenols. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011 Aug;8(5):445-51.
  3. Burton-Freeman BM, Sandhu AK, Edirisinghe I. Red raspberries and their bioactive polyphenols: cardiometabolic and neuronal health links. Adv Nutr. 2016 Jan 15;7(1):44-65. doi: 10.3945/an.115.009639.
  4. Chang J, Rimando A, Pallas M, Camins A, et al. Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Sep;33(9):2062-71. n  Corbi G, Conti V, Davinelli S, Scapagnini G et al. Dietary Phytochemicals in neuroimmunoaging: a new therapeutic possibility for humans. Front Pharmacol. 2016 Oct 13;7:364.
  5. Devassy JG, Leng S, Gabbs M, Monirujjaman M, Aukema HM. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipins in neuroinflammation and management of alzheimer disease. Adv Nutr. 2016 Sep 15;7(5):905-16. doi: 10.3945/ an.116.012187.
  6. Ergin V, Hariry RE, Karasu C. Ghosh D, Scheepens A. Vascular action of polyphenols. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Mar;53(3):322-31. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200800182.
  7. Essa MM, Vijayan RK, Castellano-Gonzal

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About the Author

Marty Ross, MD is a passionate Lyme disease educator and clinical expert. He helps Lyme sufferers and their physicians see what really works based on his review of the science and extensive real-world experience. Dr. Ross is licensed to practice medicine in Washington State (License: MD00033296) where he has treated thousands of Lyme disease patients in his Seattle practice. 

Marty Ross, MD is a graduate of Indiana University School of Medicine and Georgetown University Family Medicine Residency. He is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Disease Society (ILADS) and The Institute for Functional Medicine.

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